A high percentage of effects in any large system are caused by a low percent of variables.
Objects and environments should be designed to be usable, without modification, by as many people as possible.
Aesthetic designs are perceived as easier to use than less-aesthetic designs.
A property in which the physical characteristics of an object or environment influence its function.
The placement of elements such that edges line up along columns, or their bodies along a common center.
A tendency to find forms that appear humanoid or exhibit humanlike characteristics appealing.
Universal patterns of theme and form resulting from innate biases or dispositions.
Alignment based on the area of elements versus the edge of elements.
A tendency to perceive a set of individual elements as a single, recognizable pattern, rather than multiple individual elements. One of Gestalt Principles of Perception.
Elements that move in the same direction are perceived to be more related than elements that move in different directions or are stationary. One of Gestalt Principles of Perception.
A method of illustrating relationships and patterns in system behaviors by representing two or more system variables in a controlled way.
Key techniques for making valid comparisons are:
A technique for preventing unintended actions by requiring verification of the actions before they are performed (Verification Principle).
Use confirmation to minimize errors in the performance of critical or irreversible operations.
The usability and learnability of a system is improved when similar parts are expressed in similar ways. But do not compromise clarity or usability for consistency.
Similarity occurs when objects look similar to one another. People often perceive them as a group or pattern.
Continuation occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object.
A tendency to perceive a set of individual elements as a single, recognizable pattern, rather than multiple individual elements.
Closure occurs when an object is incomplete or a space is not completely enclosed. If enough of the shape is indicated, people percieve the whole by filling in the missing infomation.
Proximity occurs when elements are placed close together. They tend to be perceived as a group.
The eye differentiates an object form its surrounding area. a form, silhouette, or shape is naturrally perceived as figure (object), while the surrounding area is perceived as ground (background).
Balancing figure and ground can make the perceived image more clear. Using unusual figure/ground relationships can add interest and sublety to an image.
Elements that move in the same direction are perceived to be more related than elements that move in different directions or are stationary.
“Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works”
- Steve Jobs
“There are three responses to a piece of design – yes, no, and WOW! Wow is the one to aim for.”
- Milton Glaser
“Digital design is like painting, except the paint never dries.”
- Neville Brody
“Design is a solution to a problem. Art is a question to a problem.”
- John Maeda
“The ability to simplify means to eliminate the unnecessary so that the necessary may speak.”
- Hans Hofmann
“Good design is obvious, great design is transparent.”
- Joe Sparano